Adulterations in Bread

Bread is formed by mixing, kneading and baking flour, water, yeast and salt as the main ingredients. The source of flour, which is one of the basic components of bread, is wheat. There are different wheats according to usage type. For example; Triticum aestivum vulgare has gluten quality suitable for fermented bread making. Triticum durum, durum wheats, gluten quality is low. Triticum durum compactum is the wheat used in bread making with high gluten quality.

Wheat quality is determined by many variables: physical properties of the grain, starch content, and protein content and structure. Among the quality characteristics, the protein storage property of the seed is the most important for bread quality (Dowell et al., 2008).

According to the Turkish Food Codex Communiqu├ę on Wheat Flour;

  • Wheat flour does not contain foreign taste and odor.

  • There is no flammable substance in the flour.

  • Wheat flour has its own color and appearance.

The whole wheat grain contains about 12% water, 71.2% carbohydrate, 11% protein, 1.7% fat, 2.2% cellulose and 1.9% mineral. Wheat with a protein content of more than 13% is rich in glutence and wheat with protein content of less than 11% is called glutence poor (Vural N., 1992).

Since ╬▒-amylase enzyme content is insufficient in wheat in our country, ╬▒-amylase addition is used in bread making. ╬▒-amylase converts starch to sugar, thus reducing the fermentation time of the dough. This sugar from starch is used by yeast and carbon dioxide gas is released. Carbon dioxide gas expands with the temperature in the dough supplied to the oven for baking and contributes to the bread making of bread with smooth internal structure, more volume and easily digestible quality. Another additive to the good volume of bread is vitamin C. Vitamin C increases the quality of the proteins in the flour and contributes to the quality of bread production and also increases the nutritional value of bread. Adulterations in bread making:

  • Bleaching of raw flour,

  • Addition of undesirable additives (cysteine, DATEM, soy flour ÔÇŽ),

  • Use of glucose oxidase enzyme instead of vitamin C,

-Using wheat with GDO (hexaploid).

-Bryan G.J., Dixon R., Gale M.D., Wiseman G., A PCR-based Method fort he Detection of Hexaploid Bread Wheat Adulteration of Durum Wheat and Pasta, Volume 28, Issue 2, September 1998, pages 135-145

-Bonfil D.J., Posner E.S., Can bread wheat quality be determined by gluten index?, Volume 56, Issue 2, September 2012, pages 115-118

-T├╝rk G─▒da Kodeksi Bu─čday Unu Tebli─či, Tebli─č No:2013/9, Say─▒:28606, Resmi Gazete, 2 Nisan 2013 Sal─▒

-Vural N., Besin Analizleri, 1992, Ankara ├ťniversitesi, Eczac─▒l─▒k Fak├╝ltesi, Yay─▒n No :69

-Ayd─▒n ├ç., ├ľzel F., G─▒da Analizler

-Querci M., JerminiM., Eeede G.U., 2006, G─▒da ├ľrneklerinde Geneti─či De─či┼čtirilmi┼č Organizma Analizleri, Kurs Elkitab─▒, ├çeviri 2010


thanks for the details and shared information.

ÔÇśVitamin C increases the quality of the proteins in the flour and contributes to the quality of bread productionÔÇÖ - ANy reference to this would be great