Throughout history, safe food supply is known to be one of the main occupations of people and especially the food sector. In this context, although food safety management systems such as HACCP and ISO 22000 are used, these systems provide food safety by taking into consideration natural contamination. However, it is not sufficient against deliberate contamination and adulteration. Since food safety management systems are dynamic systems, it is necessary to identify new emerging dangers and threats and to update methodologies against every situation and to develop new methodologies when necessary.
The impact of HACCP against accidental contamination has been proven, but the HACCP principles cannot be used effectively and successfully to detect or reduce intentional attacks. The only factor behind attacks that result in deliberate contamination is human. They may be from inside the food sector or from outside. Their main purpose may be to harm human health, the reputation of the producer or the economic gain of the producer. Each of these situations shows that the food sector needs to be protected from these attacks. Therefore, new guidelines and new food safety management systems have been published: Threat Assessment at Critical Control Points (TACCP) against food terrorism and Vulnerability Analysis and Critical Control Points (VACCP) for the protection of vulnerable foods.
Instead of using a HACCP plan to identify and control hazards when they occur, a HARPC plan aims to prevent hazards that occur initially. This includes hazards such as vulnerabilities and threats as described in the previous sections.
Food safety, food quality, food defense and food forgery are definitions that can be used to explain these three systems. There is definitely a food safety and health risk in HACCP and TACCP. In VACCP, there may not always be a food safety risk.