Extending the shelf life of foods, improving the sensory properties of foods, preserving the food, quality characteristics, preserving the nutritive value by assisting in food preparation.
Classification of Food Additives
a. Antimicrobials: Nitrites and nitrates (E250, E251) are the most widely discussed of these substances used to protect nutrients in bacteria, mold, yeast spoilage, prolong shelf life, and preserve natural color and aroma.
b. Antioxidants Undesirable in food, odor, aroma, taste changes, enzymatic darkening or discoloration, oxidation (oxidative acidity) prevention / retardation, such as benefits, especially in oils and fatty foods are used, extend shelf life (ascorbic acid, etc.). Oxidative reactions in food occur as a result of the destruction of lipids, colorants, essential amino acids and vitamins.
2.Developing the structure and preparation and cooking properties
a. pH regulators
The acidity regulators are used to adjust the pH of the food. They may also exhibit bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic effects on the diet by lowering the pH. Increased acidity increases the heat sensitivity of many pathogenic and nutrient microorganisms. Cooking and other heat treatment extends the shelf life of nutrients by destroying bacteria.
Anti-caking agents are used to maintain the flowability of powdered mixtures such as salt, powdered sugar, spices, instant soups, milk powder, and to prevent caking and aggregation (aluminum silicate, tricalcium phosphate).
c. Emulsifiers (lecithin, mono and diglycerides)
They are used for mixing water and oil in food and providing homogeneous distribution by reducing surface tension (lecithin, sorbitan monostearate, etc.).
d.Stabilizers, thickeners, artificial sweeteners
Stabilizers; They are used to prevent re-separation of oil and water. Gelling agent; Gives food texture with gel formation (goat horn gum, pectin, etc.). Artificial sweeteners; It is used to make the aroma and taste more attractive and to give the sweet taste (without calories) (aspartame, acesulfame K, sorbitol, saccharin).
Others Color stabilizing agent; stabilizes the color of the food, ensures its persistence Baking agent increases the volume of the dough by releasing gas. Flour Processing Agent; improves the cooking quality or color of the flour.
3.Aroma and Color developers
a. Aroma substances
The most commonly used flavoring agent is monosodium glutamate (MSG). The taste created by MSG, called umami, can cause Chinese restaurant syndrome. MSG uptake may cause chest pain, facial burning, redness, paresthesia, sweating, dizziness, headache, palpitations, nausea and vomiting. Children may experience tremor and chills, irritability, scream and delirium. The mechanism of this picture is unknown. 15-20% of the general population appears to be sensitive to small doses of MSG, but in some individuals it may occur with large doses. Symptoms begin within one hour of food intake, but may be delayed from the onset to fourteen hours. Flavor enhancers are used to increase the flavor and / or odor present in the food, to make the aroma more attractive, to preserve and improve the original aroma.
They participate in order to regain the natural color lost during processing and storage, to strengthen the weak color, to give color to the colorless food that is actually colorless, and to gain consumer appreciation by hiding low quality. These substances are used in many products such as soft drinks, candies, ice creams, gels, bakery products, artificial powder drinks, gums, wafer biscuits and creams.
4.Nutritional preservatives (Nutrients)
a. Substitutes of nutrients lost during processing (B1, B2, niacin)
b. Added to the elements that may be missing in the diet (vitamins A, D).