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Biscuit and bakery products

Hello, guys am currently working on a biscuit recipe which I have progressed very well on the recipe except that the biscuit is still tough and I don’t get to have those air spaces/porous spaces in the biscuit.
can anyone please tell me what I can do here?

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@Mrambakilavo

Guessing about it from scant information provided won’t help solve your problem.
Show us the formulation and process how you made it including relevants parameters…
So we can suggest exact solution to your problem.

okay my recipe has
wheat Flour 261.5g
Shortening 85g
salt 2.5g
sugar 80g
Water 65g

@Mrambakilavo
You are not using any sort
Chemical leavening like ammonium bicarbonate sodium bicarbonate or baking powder.
Then if you just mix it up all ingredients without care you will end up with a compact heavy cookie…with poor eating quality.

What is your blending process? It looks to me like your hydration may be a bit low. Try increasing your water, make sure it is ice cold, and only mix until blended to avoid too much gluten development. Lard works best but shortening is good. Roy is correct in that you should have a leavening agent in the formulation.

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Use baking powder and/or yeast extract in the recipe . The first one evaporates during cooking the second one gives volume to the cookie

Thanks to you all, am currently not using any leavening agent and i was just doing trials in which i am just mixing it with a bare hands.

@Mrambakilavo .
Your recipe is crude…
What’s really your goal; a biscuit or a cookie .
Are you making it for personal consumption or developing it for some business purpose.,?
Wwhat shapes are making with it ,how thick is each unit piece of dough, Are you cutting it with a cookie cutter or shaping it just by hand, whats your baking time and temperature fir it ?

Yes, I am actually doing development for business purposes, I have a client that needs to find out what he can use in his biscuit so that it can have those porous spaces.
am actually baking this at 200-degree celsius for 20 minutes.
I am just doing development in the lab so I just cut them by using the normal cutters for cookies.

You recipe is lean for a cookie but nearer to a semi sweet biscuit. What equipment does your client have, rotary molders or rotary cutter…Does he have a tunnel oven.
I do find your recipe a bit dry but did not comment about it as I don’t know your flour quality.,if its lower in protein or not( suited for biscuits,) .
What is obvious is your lack of chemical leavening which can significantly improve the pore or crumb structure of your biscuit.
Further as you combined all the ingredients simultaneously it implies its a biscuit than a cookie.
Please take a second look at your recipe , try to check the facility of your client about the machine that eventually runs it during scale up then use it as as the idea to improve your biscuit…

@Roy Thank you for your help