Free fatty acids

Hello, everyone! I am kindly asking for your advice and help regarding FFA content in palmolein during frying. I am dealing with the increasing of FFA during production even tho there are the operational changes made for preventing this (maybe not good enough). Can you please share with me your knowledge about this? Do you recommend gas chromatography instead of titration to make FFA analysis? Which one is best from your point of view? If you know more about it and have a good idea to help me decrease FFA or prevent increasing during production, i would be grateful! Thank you in advance for your time and fingers crossed to all of you searching answers in the name of science! :relaxed:


From the place I am connected, they just use wet chemistry to determine FFA, In palm olein , no instrumentation.
Its inevitable that FFA will increase in the frying process specially with high moisture goods to be fried.

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FFA increasing during frying is normal but how much is increased in how many frying cycle is important. if you could share your frying temperature, initial FFA, frying cycle and increased FFA, food type etc. I can provide some suggestions. thanks

Hello Florentina
Did you try to find some literature about all the methdos used to quantifcation FFA’s?
For example:

Analysis of fatty acid profiles of free fatty acids generated in deep-frying process

Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Thermally and Oxidatively Degraded Sunflower Oil and Palm Fat


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I searched, but not like this ones. That s why thank you so much for your suggestions! Can i ask you if you recommend to purchase a gas cromatographer for the analysis as well?

If you can live with old fashioned titrimetric analysis then there is no point wasting hard cash on expensive equipment like gas chromatograph.
But if you have spare cash to splurge for fancy equipment then go for it…


titration method is enough for FFA analysis. Heavy equipments like HPLC or GC is not needed for FFA analysis.

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Raw materials: pellets
Temperature: 175°C
Oil level: 88mm
Capacity: 500 kilos/hour
FFA initial: 0,09 - 0,11
Run: 8h
FFA final: 0,29 - 0,30
Sometimes, mixed with used oil, about 15-20% and FFA final turnes to apx 0,40.

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what do you mean mixed with used oil? if your used oil’s FFA is higher then FFA increase very fast. intial FFA is very important to control FFA. did you use any antioxidants?
what is your food type?
FFA 0.3% within 8 h is frying is consider fast.

The food type is pellets. Yes, there are times ww are mixing fresh oil with used one. But my intention was to find out what is wrong in what i am doing and it s resulting with big FFA value when i am using only fresh oil. We are not using any antioxidant. How can i use it? This sounds interesting

I think, I can help in this matter, is there any way to talk via Whatsapp, WeChat or email.

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Let discuss here to help others.

If you can help, this would be amazing!

You can use TBHQ or Rosemary extract. there are several antioxidants in the market.
however FFA is because of hydrolysis so need to take care moisture content in oil and food.
need more detail data to comment further.

You can try using antifoaming agent: PMDS, it can help. Can you share more regarding the frying process; temperature, fryer capacity, continuous or batch process, then we can get some solution. Design of fryer also causes rapid increase in ffa,