Food spoilage

Why does food spoil?
There are many reasons that food can spoil. These are six common causes:
:microbe:Microorganisms - bacteria, yeasts, moulds and fungi can grow in food and affect the appearance, odour, taste and texture. They require time and optimum temperatures to grow and reproduce. Pathogenic microorganisms, that cause food borne illness, may grow in foods without any noticeable changes. Many food preservation methods act to remove, kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms
:droplet:Enzymes- naturally present in foods, such as fruit and vegetables, are responsible for the ripening process and can impact colour, texture and flavour (e.g. colour change of bananas from yellow to brown; apples browning once cut)
:cyclone:Oxidation - occurs when food interacts with air, resulting in undesirable changes in colour, flavour and nutritional content. It also causes rancidity in fats
:sunny:Light - can cause colour and vitamin losses and contribute to the oxidation of fats
:boom:Physical damage - bruises and cracks on raw produce, and damaged or poorly sealed packaging, can allow microorganisms, air and pests to enter
:cricket: Pests - insects, rodents and parasites can damage food, making it vulnerable to further deterioration. They can also carry microorganisms and cause physical contamination