Why bulging issue happened in ketchup sachet

Dear Technocrates,

Appreciate your support to share possible root cause of tomato ketchup having bulging issue - refer the attached pic.

Upon micro analysis, No bacterial growth noticed.

Is it really due to micro issue or chemical reaction ?

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Check The Processing Parameter Example - Temperature & Pressure of Pasteurizer & homogenizer.
Use of Appropriate amount of Preservatives. Dosage Level.
Packaging material Microbial Load Check.
CIP evaluation

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Based on the information provided, it is likely that the bulging of the tomato ketchup is caused by a fermentation process. The absence of bacterial growth in the micro analysis suggests that the bulging is not caused by bacterial spoilage, but rather by the build-up of gases produced by yeasts or molds present in the ketchup. The gases cause the pressure to build up, leading to the bulging of the container. It could also be caused by chemical reaction if the ketchup has been stored at high temperature for long period of time. Without more information or a detailed analysis, it is difficult to determine the specific cause of the bulging with certainty.

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Most likely cause should be CO2 from yeast fermentation.

Potential fixes to avoid issues in the next run are:

  1. Increase hot fill temp and hold/temp and time.
  2. Add preservatives such as benzoates or sorbate
  3. Increase vinegar to a total acetic acid above 1%
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Yes, ageed to your suggestion