Cocoa Butter Replacements

The reasons for the orientation towards cocoa butter replacements are as follows:

1- The production cost of cocoa butter is high and therefore expensive.

2-Because it is a natural substance, there are always changes in the quality of cocoa butter.

3- Tempering is always needed.

4-Chocolates used only cocoa butter have limited stability.

5- Melting properties of cocoa butter are not suitable for all applications and all types of climate.

Classification of Cocoa Butter Substitutes

Cocoa butter substitutes according to their content and properties; cocoa butter equivalents (Cocoa Butter Equivalents, CBEs), cocoa butter replacers (Cocoa Butter Replacers, CBRs) and cocoa butter substitutes (Cocoa Butter Substitutes, CBSs).

Cocoa Butter Equivalents ( Cocoa Butter Equivalents , CBEs )

  • Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) are identical in terms of physical and chemical properties to those of cocoa butter. They differ from cocoa butter in their aroma properties and are produced from raw materials other than cocoa beans. They are also called non-lauric vegetable oils because they do not contain lauric acid. Some of these oils are obtained by modification methods such as hydrogenation, interesterification and fractionation of vegetable oils.

There are some advantages of using CBEs in chocolates:

1. CBEs are cheaper than cocoa butter and produce more economical chocolate.

2. Increases the product's tolerance to milk fat.

3. Increases resistance to storage conditions at high temperatures.

4. Supports control of oil flowering

Cocoa Butter Supports ( Cocoa Butter Extenders , CBEXs ):

  • Cocoa butter supplements consist of components similar to cocoa butter equivalents, but do not mix with cocoa butter at any rate. In the formulation of cocoa butter, a high proportion of palm medium fraction is used.

Cocoa Butter Developers ( Cocoa Butter Improvers , CBIs ):

  • They have similar properties to cocoa butter equivalents, but the amount of solid triglycerides they contain is higher than cocoa butter equivalents. Therefore, they are used in the development of soft cocoa butter.

Cocoa Butter Substitutes ( Cocoa Butter Substitutes , CBSs ):

Cocoa butter analogues are lauric based oils that are completely different from cocoa butter in chemical properties but show some similarities to the cocoa butter physically. It is usually derived from palm kernel and coconut oil. Lauric oils contain on average 40-50% lauric fatty acids (C12) and have low molecular weights. Therefore, lauric CBSs are resistant to oxidative rash. The fatty acid chains of such oils are short. TG compositions are completely different from cocoa butter. Therefore, it can be said that there is a significant mismatch between cocoa butter and GISs. Such oils are produced by hydrogenation, interesterification and fractionation techniques. Using these techniques, the fat shows a wider melting range and the amount of fat increases. Using these methods, products similar to cocoa butter in hardness, mouth feel and aroma can be obtained. They are used as coating material by mixing with low fat content or completely defaced cocoa powder.

Cocoa Butter Substitutes ( Cocoa Butter Replacers , CBRs ):

Cocoa butter equivalents are non-lauric based fats whose TG compositions are completely different from cocoa butter, but are similar to cocoa butter in fatty acid composition. Only small amounts can be mixed with cocoa butter. In the literature, the term cocoa butter analogues (CBSs) are sometimes used instead of cocoa butter substitutes (CBRs). These oils are obtained as a result of hydrogenation and fractionation of oils such as soy, cottonseed, peanut, sunflower and corn oil. That is, these oils are special fractions of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The hydrogenation of these oils is carried out in a controlled manner with trans acids which increase the solid phase amount of the oil.


Table : Vegetable oils and plants from which chocolate products can be added

General names of vegetable fats Scientific names of plants from which vegetable oils are obtained
Illipe, Borneo tallow or Tengkawang Shorea spp .
Palm oil Elaeis guineensis , Elaeis olifera
Sal Shorea robusta
Shea Butyrospermum parkii
Kokum gurgi Garcinia indica
Mango kernel Mangifera indica


information very useful thanks so what are the analysis of cocoa butter ? for example lipase analysis, this can give us a lot of information. thanks…

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Its really amazing to read this article… It will help the industry to get more profit by having low cost :blush:


Do you really know how to apply these fats in confectionery and chocolate application…Do you have practical experience in formulating confectiond with those fats you enumerated .
Mentioning it does not help anyone as they appreciate the value greatly…Besides that information you presented can be curated by themselves if they have the keen interest in these fats.

Is it 1:1 replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter equivalent for cake premixes

Yes you can use it 1:1 . CBEs contain Shea Butter generally. They are high quality butters and they are expensive.

Cocoa butter for cake premixes ,…?Is it even possible :smile: That’s the first time I heard about using such fat with varying polymorphic properties ( can exist in different crystalline state that will promote fat bloom as you don’t temper cake batter.and its intermingled in a oil in water emulsion which does not need the variouscrystallinenature of cocoa fat.).Further the creaming properties of cocoa butter is inferior to fats that exist in beta prime or form IV crystalline form…Divya are you sure you mean cocoa butter ,and may I know what cake are you talking about.
AFAIK as a bakery technologist, only cocoa powder and melted chocolate are used in batch cake making and only cocoa powder is used in cake premixes.

Divya , any replacers of cocoa butter are not usually applicable with cake premixes and also not feasable for industrial consumption

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Your post was technically right…you should retain it.

deleted by mistake by me , and posted again . :wink:

By the way , i never suggest CBR (non hydrogenated ones) for coating applications in mass production. You may lose more as I did :slight_smile: there is no cheap experience.

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At this point. I want to ask that ;

As you know there are a lot of type CBSs in the market. And in Turkey they called with number generally.

Example Num 40, num 30 etc.

Is the main difference between them stearic acid contents or hydrogenation levels ?

Thank you.

Hello Ufuk , there is only one source of industrial CBS , which is palm kernel . It is lauric base but excellent substitute. It has mainly 2 fractions, one is hard base (stearin) another one is soft base (olein) . All big gamers of fat are providing their palm kernel bases from Malaysia and indosia so no matter which company are supplying from . They are just getting customers and adjusting their interesterification levels as per their customer requirement. So the numbers are in the specifications to give an idea about slip melting point of fats. Like 33-35 , 37-39 . This is important because producers are replacing their fats differently in summer and winter seasons

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Great answer. Thank you.

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N40, N30,N25 is not number it’s temperature.
usually solid fat content is measured using these temperature range from N10-N40.

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There are several non hydro CBR products in the market for coating application. As you would like to use non hydro non trans then that product can’t compare with hydro products. if any information about CBR, happy to talk.

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I am working in these fats. if anybody interested, happy to discuss.

Thank you very much for this informative article.

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