Alternatives for Sugar Replacement in Food Technology


The physical, chemical, thermal, rheological, and sensory characteristics of spreads with noncarbohydrate nutritive sweeteners (such as polyols), produced on ball mill, could be predicted. Spreads with 70 and 100% maltitol, as a sweetener, produced on different temperatures (30, 35, 40°C) and mixer speed rotations (60, 80, 100 r/min), give the spreads with very good or excellent sensory characteristics, characteristic spreadability without sandiness (gritty texture), good melting behavior, and pleasant taste. Both process parameters are very important and have the dual effect on spread quality. The best spread quality, considering all characteristics, has the spread with 100% maltitol, produced on the highest process parameters (40°C, 100 r/min).

Low-energy foods, or products with reduced energy value, are very popular
among the consumers. There is a need for developing the new and enriched existing
products nowadays. The consumers’ awareness is raised. They want to primarily
satisfy the need for the sweet taste, as well as for maintaining or reducing your body
weight, without any consequences for your health [1].

Replacement of nutritive sweeteners with other low-energy sweeteners (such as
polyols) can change the sensory characteristics of the basic product. Proper selection of raw materials, as well as proper management of the technological process,
can obtain the products with optimal sensory properties [2].

This chapter should explain the possibility of native sugar substitution with
sugar alternatives, such as polyols (maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, isomalt,
lactitol, erythritol).

Polyols are the most suitable nutritive sugar substitute for confectionery products, such as chocolate, chocolate desserts/bars, spreads and cocoa cream products,
hard/soft candies or chewing gums, bakery products, and nonalcoholic beverages.
Choosing an adequate polyol, as a sugar (sucrose) nutritive substitute, gives the
possibility for a product that has almost unchanged sensory properties and that has
maintained a sweet taste. This information is of crucial importance for industrial
production. It provides important technological parameters and information for
changing the process parameters and the need for new equipment:

  1. Polyols are very stable at high temperatures and do not react with amino acids.
    Generally, polyols [3] have about 40–50% less energy value than sucrose that
    has significantly more stability than monosaccharides from which they are
    produced because they do not have a carbonyl group.

  2. Do not participate in caramelization and Maillard reactions.

  3. Do not ferment in the oral cavity and therefore do not cause caries having a
    pleasant and neutral taste.

  4. Give the feeling of cooling, especially sorbitol and xylitol.

By Marko Petković
Submitted: August 14th 2018 Reviewed: October 25th 2018 Published: January 23rd 2019
DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.82251