Aging of grains and pluses

Hello,
I’m very curious about aging of grains and pulses. How to know if grains or pulses you purchased from market to manufacture a food product is fresh or old?

Using old raw material can deteriorate the finished product and to prevent this what test should be done or machinery required.

As of my knowledge I think when grains or pulses getting old, kept in store houses for long period they develop some toxins on them or maybe their nutritional composition start to decrease.

So what are the specific components I should test before buying raw material?

Thank you

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Very interesting topic with a wider perspective.
Nutrient composition can be easily studied if there is farm/crop based investigations carried out in agricultural centers specific of the crop, pulse or grain. The variety of the grain or pulse would also differ.
Aging to some extent is always involved in grain & pulses before it reaches the consumer, while the definite time period to fix this process is not very clear.
Regarding the toxins produced, rarely are such details available in literature too…
Hope there are some work going on elsewhere and if scientist can share those info would be great! Thank you for the probing thought

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hi , grains and pulses are mostly annual crops so without doubt 12 month old stock
would also be in the system , and this practice would have been carried out for centuries , also , in many locations in the world strategic stock holding of crops is also carried out in case of emergencies
Pulses and grain crops are quite hardy in proper storage , unless they are impacted by pests and or water ingress , only minimal changes of micronutrients occur during storage , but we would not expect changes to protein , fibre , lipid content . Crops with higher lipid contend eg millet , flax would be subject to deterioration if a high proportion of broken grains / seed were evident

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